utcjonesobservatory:

Dramatic Nebulas
One square degree image of the Tarantula Nebula and its surroundings. The spidery nebula is seen in the upper-centre of the image. Slightly to the lower-right, a web of filaments harbours the famous supernova SN 1987A. Many other reddish nebulae are visible in the image, as well as a cluster of young stars on the left, known as NGC 2100. Technical information: the image is based on observations carried out by Joao Alves (Calar Alto, Spain), Benoit Vandame and Yuri Beletsky (ESO) with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) at the 2.2-m telescope on La Silla. These data consist of a 2x2 WFI mosaic in the B- and V-bands, and in the H-alpha and [OIII] narrow bands. The data were first processed with the ESO/MVM pipeline by the Advanced Data Products (ADP) group at ESO.
 Caption: ESO  ESO/R. Fosbury (ST-ECF)

utcjonesobservatory:

Dramatic Nebulas

One square degree image of the Tarantula Nebula and its surroundings. The spidery nebula is seen in the upper-centre of the image. Slightly to the lower-right, a web of filaments harbours the famous supernova SN 1987A. Many other reddish nebulae are visible in the image, as well as a cluster of young stars on the left, known as NGC 2100. Technical information: the image is based on observations carried out by Joao Alves (Calar Alto, Spain), Benoit Vandame and Yuri Beletsky (ESO) with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) at the 2.2-m telescope on La Silla. These data consist of a 2x2 WFI mosaic in the B- and V-bands, and in the H-alpha and [OIII] narrow bands. The data were first processed with the ESO/MVM pipeline by the Advanced Data Products (ADP) group at ESO.

 Caption: ESO
  ESO/R. Fosbury (ST-ECF)

(via sci-phy)

science-junkie:

A classification system for science news
Science news and articles are becoming increasingly popular, but with so much being written about so many things, it can be confusing for the beginner science enthusiast to grasp what they’re reading and how to interpret it. A simple classification system could help remedy this…
Read the article by Dean Burnett
Illustrations by Barry Welch.
science-junkie:

A classification system for science news
Science news and articles are becoming increasingly popular, but with so much being written about so many things, it can be confusing for the beginner science enthusiast to grasp what they’re reading and how to interpret it. A simple classification system could help remedy this…
Read the article by Dean Burnett
Illustrations by Barry Welch.
science-junkie:

A classification system for science news
Science news and articles are becoming increasingly popular, but with so much being written about so many things, it can be confusing for the beginner science enthusiast to grasp what they’re reading and how to interpret it. A simple classification system could help remedy this…
Read the article by Dean Burnett
Illustrations by Barry Welch.

science-junkie:

A classification system for science news

Science news and articles are becoming increasingly popular, but with so much being written about so many things, it can be confusing for the beginner science enthusiast to grasp what they’re reading and how to interpret it. A simple classification system could help remedy this…

Read the article by Dean Burnett

Illustrations by Barry Welch.

(via thenewenlightenmentage)

bigbardafree:

people who complain that pluto isnt considered one of our major planets anymore make me think of people in the 1500s being like “REMEMBER WHEN THE SUN USED TO REVOLVE AROUND THE EARTH WHY DOES SCIENCE HAVE TO RUIN EVERYTHING”

Then again, it can be said that Pluto is now the king(in size) of all dwarf planets. So I’m pretty sure that Pluto is much happier with its new title. 

More Information

(via oxidoreductase)

badsciencejokes:

Solids, Liquids, Gases,…

They all matter.

(via notadeinonychus)

a-na5:

うーん。
//A-na5.tumblr #processing
int N = 100;
int r = 125;
float thetastep = PI/34;
float[][] dx = new float[N][N];
float[][] dy = new float[N][N];
float[][] dz = new float[N][N];
float d, x, y, z;
float theta = 0;

void gen(float t) {
  for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) {
    for (int j = 0; j < N; j++) {
      dx[i][j] = map(i, 0, N, -1, 1);
      dy[i][j] = map(j, 0, N, -1, 1);
      dz[i][j] = noise(sin(TAU/N*i+t)*sin(TAU/N*j+t));
    }
  }
}

void setup() {
  size(500, 500);
  frameRate(17);
  colorMode(HSB, N);
  noStroke();
}
void draw() {
  background(0);
  gen(theta);
  for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) {
    for (int j = 0; j < N; j++) {
      d = sqrt(pow(dx[i][j],2)+pow(dy[i][j],2)+pow(dz[i][j],2));
      x = dx[i][j]/d*r;
      y = dy[i][j]/d*r;
      z = dz[i][j]/d;
      fill(z*N, 10, N);
      ellipse((x)+width/4, (y)+height/2, z*2, z*2);
      ellipse((dx[i][j]*r)+width/4*3, (dy[i][j]*r)+height/2, 
      z*2, z*2);
    }
  }
  theta += thetastep;
}

a-na5:

うーん。

//A-na5.tumblr #processing
int N = 100;
int r = 125;
float thetastep = PI/34;
float[][] dx = new float[N][N];
float[][] dy = new float[N][N];
float[][] dz = new float[N][N];
float d, x, y, z;
float theta = 0;

void gen(float t) {
  for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) {
    for (int j = 0; j < N; j++) {
      dx[i][j] = map(i, 0, N, -1, 1);
      dy[i][j] = map(j, 0, N, -1, 1);
      dz[i][j] = noise(sin(TAU/N*i+t)*sin(TAU/N*j+t));
    }
  }
}

void setup() {
  size(500, 500);
  frameRate(17);
  colorMode(HSB, N);
  noStroke();
}
void draw() {
  background(0);
  gen(theta);
  for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) {
    for (int j = 0; j < N; j++) {
      d = sqrt(pow(dx[i][j],2)+pow(dy[i][j],2)+pow(dz[i][j],2));
      x = dx[i][j]/d*r;
      y = dy[i][j]/d*r;
      z = dz[i][j]/d;
      fill(z*N, 10, N);
      ellipse((x)+width/4, (y)+height/2, z*2, z*2);
      ellipse((dx[i][j]*r)+width/4*3, (dy[i][j]*r)+height/2, 
      z*2, z*2);
    }
  }
  theta += thetastep;
}

(via noahgentile)

mindblowingscience:

Final pieces to the circadian clock puzzle found

Researchers at the UNC School of Medicine have discovered how two genes – Period and Cryptochrome – keep the circadian clocks in all human cells in time and in proper rhythm with the 24-hour day, as well as the seasons. The finding, published today in the journal Genes and Development, has implications for the development of drugs for various diseases such as cancers and diabetes, as well as conditions such as metabolic syndrome, insomnia, seasonal affective disorder, obesity, and even jetlag.

"Discovering how these circadian clock genes interact has been a long-time coming,” said Aziz Sancar, MD, PhD, Sarah Graham Kenan Professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics and senior author of the Genes and Development paper. “We’ve known for a while that four proteins were involved in generating daily rhythmicity but not exactly what they did. Now we know how the clock is reset in all cells. So we have a better idea of what to expect if we target these proteins with therapeutics.”
In all human cells, there are four genes – Cryptochrome, Period, CLOCK, and BMAL1 – that work in unison to control the cyclical changes in human physiology, such as blood pressure, body temperature, and rest-sleep cycles. The way in which these genes control physiology helps prepare us for the day. This is called the circadian clock. It keeps us in proper physiological rhythm. When we try to fast-forward or rewind the natural 24-hour day, such as when we fly seven time zones away, our circadian clocks don’t let us off easy; the genes and proteins need time to adjust. Jetlag is the feeling of our cells “realigning” to their new environment and the new starting point of a solar day.
Previously, scientists found that CLOCK and BMAL1 work in tandem to kick start the circadian clock. These genes bind to many other genes and turn them on to express proteins. This allows cells, such as brain cells, to behave the way we need them to at the start of a day.
Specifically, CLOCK and BMAL1 bind to a pair of genes called Period and Cryptochrome and turn them on to express proteins, which – after several modifications – wind up suppressing CLOCK and BMAL1 activity. Then, the Period and Cryptochrome proteins are degraded, allowing for the circadian clock to begin again.
"It’s a feedback loop," said Sancar, who discovered Cryptochrome in 1998. "The inhibition takes 24 hours. This is why we can see gene activity go up and then down throughout the day."
But scientists didn’t know exactly how that gene suppression and protein degradation happened at the back end. In fact, during experiments using one compound to stifle Cryptochrome and another drug to hinder Period, other researchers found inconsistent effects on the circadian clock, suggesting that Cryptochrome and Period did not have the same role. Sancar, a member of the UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center who studies DNA repair in addition to the circadian clock, thought the two genes might have complementary roles. His team conducted experiments to find out.
Chris Selby, PhD, a research instructor in Sancar’s lab, used two different kinds of genetics techniques to create the first-ever cell line that lacked both Cryptochrome and Period. (Each cell has two versions of each gene. Selby knocked out all four copies.)
Then Rui Ye, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow in Sancar’s lab and first author of the Genes and Development paper, put Period back into the new mutant cells. But Period by itself did not inhibit CLOCK-BMAL1; it actually had no active function inside the cells.
Next, Ye put Cryptochrome alone back into the cell line. He found that Cryptochrome not only suppressed CLOCK and BMAL1, but it squashed them indefinitely.
"The Cryptochrome just sat there," Sancar said. "It wasn’t degraded. The circadian clock couldn’t restart."
For the final experiment, Sancar’s team added Period to the cells with Cryptochrome. As Period’s protein accumulated inside cells, the scientists could see that it began to remove the Cryptochrome, as well as CLOCK and BMAL1. This led to the eventual degradation of Cryptochrome, and then the CLOCK-BMAL1 genes were free to restart the circadian clock anew to complete the 24-hour cycle.
"What we’ve done is show how the entire clock really works," Sancar said. "Now, when we screen for drugs that target these proteins, we know to expect different outcomes and why we get those outcomes. Whether it’s for treatment of jetlag or seasonal affective disorder or for controlling and optimizing cancer treatments, we had to know exactly how this clock worked.”
Previous to this research, in 2010, Sancar’s lab found that the level of an enzyme called XPA increased and decreased in synchrony with the circadian clock’s natural oscillations throughout the day. Sancar’s team proposed that chemotherapy would be most effective when XPA is at its lowest level. For humans, that’s late in the afternoon.
"This means that DNA repair is controlled by the circadian clock," Sancar said. "It also means that the circadian clocks in cancer cells could become targets for cancer drugs in order to make other therapeutics more effective."

mindblowingscience:

Final pieces to the circadian clock puzzle found

Researchers at the UNC School of Medicine have discovered how two genes – Period and Cryptochrome – keep the circadian clocks in all human cells in time and in proper rhythm with the 24-hour day, as well as the seasons. The finding, published today in the journal Genes and Development, has implications for the development of drugs for various diseases such as cancers and diabetes, as well as conditions such as metabolic syndrome, insomnia, seasonal affective disorder, obesity, and even jetlag.

"Discovering how these  genes interact has been a long-time coming,” said Aziz Sancar, MD, PhD, Sarah Graham Kenan Professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics and senior author of the Genes and Development paper. “We’ve known for a while that four proteins were involved in generating daily rhythmicity but not exactly what they did. Now we know how the clock is reset in all . So we have a better idea of what to expect if we target these proteins with therapeutics.”

In all , there are four genes – Cryptochrome, Period, CLOCK, and BMAL1 – that work in unison to control the cyclical changes in human physiology, such as blood pressure, body temperature, and rest-sleep cycles. The way in which these genes control physiology helps prepare us for the day. This is called the circadian clock. It keeps us in proper physiological rhythm. When we try to fast-forward or rewind the natural 24-hour day, such as when we fly seven time zones away, our circadian clocks don’t let us off easy; the genes and proteins need time to adjust. Jetlag is the feeling of our cells “realigning” to their new environment and the new starting point of a solar day.

Previously, scientists found that CLOCK and BMAL1 work in tandem to kick start the circadian clock. These genes bind to many other genes and turn them on to express proteins. This allows cells, such as brain cells, to behave the way we need them to at the start of a day.

Specifically, CLOCK and BMAL1 bind to a pair of genes called Period and Cryptochrome and turn them on to express proteins, which – after several modifications – wind up suppressing CLOCK and BMAL1 activity. Then, the Period and Cryptochrome proteins are degraded, allowing for the circadian clock to begin again.

"It’s a feedback loop," said Sancar, who discovered Cryptochrome in 1998. "The inhibition takes 24 hours. This is why we can see gene activity go up and then down throughout the day."

But scientists didn’t know exactly how that gene suppression and protein degradation happened at the back end. In fact, during experiments using one compound to stifle Cryptochrome and another drug to hinder Period, other researchers found inconsistent effects on the circadian clock, suggesting that Cryptochrome and Period did not have the same role. Sancar, a member of the UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center who studies DNA repair in addition to the circadian clock, thought the two genes might have complementary roles. His team conducted experiments to find out.

Chris Selby, PhD, a research instructor in Sancar’s lab, used two different kinds of genetics techniques to create the first-ever cell line that lacked both Cryptochrome and Period. (Each cell has two versions of each gene. Selby knocked out all four copies.)

Then Rui Ye, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow in Sancar’s lab and first author of the Genes and Development paper, put Period back into the new mutant cells. But Period by itself did not inhibit CLOCK-BMAL1; it actually had no active function inside the cells.

Next, Ye put Cryptochrome alone back into the cell line. He found that Cryptochrome not only suppressed CLOCK and BMAL1, but it squashed them indefinitely.

"The Cryptochrome just sat there," Sancar said. "It wasn’t degraded. The circadian clock couldn’t restart."

For the final experiment, Sancar’s team added Period to the cells with Cryptochrome. As Period’s protein accumulated inside cells, the scientists could see that it began to remove the Cryptochrome, as well as CLOCK and BMAL1. This led to the eventual degradation of Cryptochrome, and then the CLOCK-BMAL1  were free to restart the circadian clock anew to complete the 24-hour cycle.

"What we’ve done is show how the entire clock really works," Sancar said. "Now, when we screen for drugs that target these proteins, we know to expect different outcomes and why we get those outcomes. Whether it’s for treatment of jetlag or  or for controlling and optimizing cancer treatments, we had to know exactly how this clock worked.”

Previous to this research, in 2010, Sancar’s lab found that the level of an enzyme called XPA increased and decreased in synchrony with the circadian clock’s natural oscillations throughout the day. Sancar’s team proposed that chemotherapy would be most effective when XPA is at its lowest level. For humans, that’s late in the afternoon.

"This means that DNA repair is controlled by the circadian clock," Sancar said. "It also means that the circadian clocks in cancer cells could become targets for cancer drugs in order to make other therapeutics more effective."

(via shychemist)


"Probably no stars will physically hit each other. There’s just so much space between the stars, but when Andromeda collides with us it’ll have a huge impact on the Milky Way. Some things will get thrown into the black hole in the middle, some stars will get ripped off and thrown away into space, so it’ll be dramatic. And the entire night sky will change." - The Universe S1E9 Alien Galaxies

"Probably no stars will physically hit each other. There’s just so much space between the stars, but when Andromeda collides with us it’ll have a huge impact on the Milky Way. Some things will get thrown into the black hole in the middle, some stars will get ripped off and thrown away into space, so it’ll be dramatic. And the entire night sky will change." - The Universe S1E9 Alien Galaxies

"Probably no stars will physically hit each other. There’s just so much space between the stars, but when Andromeda collides with us it’ll have a huge impact on the Milky Way. Some things will get thrown into the black hole in the middle, some stars will get ripped off and thrown away into space, so it’ll be dramatic. And the entire night sky will change." - The Universe S1E9 Alien Galaxies

"Probably no stars will physically hit each other. There’s just so much space between the stars, but when Andromeda collides with us it’ll have a huge impact on the Milky Way. Some things will get thrown into the black hole in the middle, some stars will get ripped off and thrown away into space, so it’ll be dramatic. And the entire night sky will change." - The Universe S1E9 Alien Galaxies

"Probably no stars will physically hit each other. There’s just so much space between the stars, but when Andromeda collides with us it’ll have a huge impact on the Milky Way. Some things will get thrown into the black hole in the middle, some stars will get ripped off and thrown away into space, so it’ll be dramatic. And the entire night sky will change." - The Universe S1E9 Alien Galaxies

(via psychotic-science)

2,459 plays
currentsinbiology:

Stalked protozoan attached to a filamentous green algae with bacteria on its surface (160x)
Paul W. Johnson
University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island, USA
Technique: Nomarski Differential Interference Contrast

currentsinbiology:

Stalked protozoan attached to a filamentous green algae with bacteria on its surface (160x)

Paul W. Johnson

University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island, USA

Technique: Nomarski Differential Interference Contrast

(via shychemist)

matt112830:

sharplydressedtentacles:

banesidhe:

calming-tea:

samrgarrett:

outofthecavern:

opiatevampire:

theworldisconfused:

In addition to essentially inventing the computer, Alan Turing also broke the German Enigma Code during World War II which paved the way for the D-Day invasion. The man was a hyper-genius. I’ve read descriptions of his work by mathematical physicist Sir Roger Penrose. He’s been a hero of mine ever since.
The level of thought required to come up with the stuff he came up with is totally beyond my comprehension. I actually did not even know about his orientation until much later. He was prosecuted and ordered to undergo chemical castration. Soon thereafter, he committed suicide by eating a cyanide-laced apple.

The government forced him to take estrogen as a punishment (or “cure”?). He began to develop breasts and other side effects.
He committed suicide by biting into a cyanide laced apple. This is supposedly the inspiration for the name/logo of Apple computers.

omfg
omfg
and old Apple computers
the apple was a rainbow 







Reblogging again because more people need to know about Turing dammit.

Whoa…

matt112830:

sharplydressedtentacles:

banesidhe:

calming-tea:

samrgarrett:

outofthecavern:

opiatevampire:

theworldisconfused:

In addition to essentially inventing the computer, Alan Turing also broke the German Enigma Code during World War II which paved the way for the D-Day invasion. The man was a hyper-genius. I’ve read descriptions of his work by mathematical physicist Sir Roger Penrose. He’s been a hero of mine ever since.

The level of thought required to come up with the stuff he came up with is totally beyond my comprehension. I actually did not even know about his orientation until much later. He was prosecuted and ordered to undergo chemical castration. Soon thereafter, he committed suicide by eating a cyanide-laced apple.

The government forced him to take estrogen as a punishment (or “cure”?). He began to develop breasts and other side effects.

He committed suicide by biting into a cyanide laced apple. This is supposedly the inspiration for the name/logo of Apple computers.

omfg

omfg

and old Apple computers

the apple was a rainbow 

image

image

image

Reblogging again because more people need to know about Turing dammit.

Whoa…

(via anti-feminism-pro-equality)